One of Its Kind Methodology

The theory of planned behavior is a theory about the link between attitudes and behavior. It was proposed by Icek Ajzen as an extension of the theory of reasoned action. It is one of the most predictive persuasion theories. It has been applied to studies of the relations among beliefs, attitudes, behavioral intentions and behaviors in various fields. If people evaluated the suggested behavior as positive (attitude), and if they think their significant others wanted them to perform the behavior (subjective norm), this results in a higher intention (motivation) and they are more likely to do so. A high correlation of attitudes and subjective norms to behavioral intention, and subsequently to behavior has been confirmed. We know that behavior do change over time. Behavioral intent and behavior must be measured at the same time for us to expect that they will relate. Reasoned action states that attitudes, together with subjective norms, determine behavioral intent. This means that if a person's attitude changes, his or her behavioral intent will probably change to. So, if we try to change people's behavioral intent and then wait to measure.


Interventions Required

Also known as "Individual Psychology". Sees the person as a whole. Ideas include compensation for feelings of inferiority leading to striving for significance toward a fictional final goal with a private logic. Birth order and mistaken goals are explored to examine mistaken motivations of children and adults in the family constellation.

Psychoanalysis, Typical Day, Reorienting, Re-educating

Individuals are shaped by their experiences with caregivers in the first three years of life. Used as a foundation forObject Relations Theory. The Strange Situation experiment with infants involves a systematic process of leaving a child alone in a room in order to assess the quality of their parental bond.

Psychoanalysis,Play Therapy,heraplay,yadic developmental psychotherapy

Also known as Intergenerational Family Therapy (although there are also other schools of intergenerational family therapy). Family members are driven to achieve a balance of internal and external differentiation, causing anxiety, triangulation, and emotional cutoff. Families are affected by nuclear family emotional processes, sibling positions and multigenerational transmission patterns resulting in an undifferentiated family ego mass.

Detriangulation, Nonanxious Presence,Genograms, Coaching

Problems are the result of operant conditioning that reinforces negative behaviors within the family's interpersonal social exchanges that extinguish desired behavior and promote incentives toward unwanted behaviors. This can lead to irrational beliefs and a faulty family schema.

Therapeutic Contracts, Modeling,Systematic Desensitization, Shaping, Charting, Examining Irrational Beliefs

Individuals form meanings about their experiences within the context of social relationship on a personal and organizational level. Collaborative therapists help families reorganize and dis-solve their perceived problems through a transparent dialogue about inner thoughts with a not-knowing stance intended to illicit new meaning through conversation. Collaborative therapy is an approach that avoids a particular theoretical perspective in favor of a client-centered philosophical process.

Dialogical Conversation, Not Knowing, Curiosity, Being Public, Reflecting Teams

All people are born into a primary survival triad between themselves and their parents where they adopt survival stances to protect their self-worth from threats communicated by words and behaviors of their family members. Experiential therapists are interested in altering the overt and covert messages between family members that affect their body, mind and feelings in order to promote congruence and to validate each person's inherent self-worth.

Equality, Modeling Communication, Family Life Chronology, Family Sculpting, Metaphors, Family Reconstruction

Families are built upon an unconscious network of implicit loyalties between parents and children that can be damaged when these relational ethics of fairness, trust, entitlement, mutuality and merit are breached.

Rebalancing, Family Negotiations, Validation,Filial Debt Repayment

Couples and families can develop rigid patterns of interaction based on powerful emotional experiences that hinder emotional engagement and trust. Treatment aims to enhance empathic capabilities of family members by exploring deep-seated habits and modifying emotional cues.

Reflecting, Validation, Heightening, Reframing, Restructuring

Stemming from Gestalt foundations, change and growth occurs through an existential encounter with a therapist who is intentionally real and authentic with clients without pretense, often in a playful and sometimes absurd way as a means to foster flexibility in the family and promote individuation.

Battling, Constructive Anxiety, Redefining Symptoms, Affective Confrontation, Co-Therapy, Humor

Complications from social and political disparity between genders are identified as underlying causes of conflict within a family system. Therapists are encouraged to be aware of these influences in order to avoid perpetuating hidden oppression, biases and cultural stereotypes and to model an egalitarian perspective of healthy family relationships.

Demystifying, Modeling, Equality, Personal Accountability

A practical attempt by the Milan Group to establish therapeutic techniques based on Gregory Bateson's cyberneticsthat disrupts unseen systemic patterns of control and games between family members by challenging erroneous family beliefs and reworking the family's linguistic assumptions.

Hypothesizing, Circular Questioning, Neutrality, Counterparadox

Families facing the challenges of major illness experience a unique set of biological, psychological and social difficulties that require specialized skills of a therapist who understands the complexities of the medical system, as well as the full spectrum of mental health theories and techniques.

Grief Work, Family Meetings, Consultations, Collaborative Approaches

Established by the Mental Research Institute(MRI) as a synthesis of ideas from multiple theorists in order to interrupt misguided attempts by families to create first and second order change by persisting with more of the same, mixed signals from unclear metacommunication and paradoxical double-bind messages.

Reframing, Prescribing the Symptom, Relabeling, Restraining (Going Slow),Bellac Ploy

People use stories to make sense of their experience and to establish their identity as a social and political constructs based on local knowledge. Narrative therapists avoid marginalizing their clients by positioning themselves as a co-editor of their reality with the idea that the person is not the problem, but the problem is the problem.

Deconstruction,Externalizing Problems, Mapping, Asking Permission

Individuals choose relationships that attempt to heal insecure attachments from childhood. Negative patterns established by their parents (object) are projected onto their partners.

Detriangulation, Co-Therapy,Psychoanalysis, Holding Environment

By applying the strategies of Freudian psychoanalysis to the family system therapists can gain insight into the interlocking psychopathologies of the family members and seek to improve complementarity

Psychoanalysis, Authenticity, Joining, Confrontation

The inevitable onset of constant change leads to negative interpretations of the past and language that shapes the meaning of an individual's situation, diminishing their hope and causing them to overlook their own strengths and resources.

Future Focus, Beginner's Mind, Miracle Question, Goal Setting, Scaling

Symptoms of dysfunction are purposeful in maintaining homeostasis in the family hierarchy as it transitions through various stages in the family life cycle.

Directives, Paradoxical Injunctions, Positioning, Metaphoric Tasks, Restraining (Going Slow)

Family problems arise from maladaptive boundaries and subsystems that are created within the overall family system of rules and rituals that governs their interactions.

Joining, Family Mapping, Reenactments, Reframing, Unbalancing